Eye Movement Declares the Mind of the Reading Reader

Not only you, everyone does not always concentrate when reading. In a new study published in the Psychology Association journal, the researchers recorded eye movements during reading and found that the eyes were still moving when the mind was floating, but the eyes did not move the same way when you noticed.

 all people do not always concentrate when reading the Movement of the Eye Expressing the Mind of the Gliding Reader

A psychology scientist at the University of Pittsburgh, Erik Reichle is interested in how the brain controls eye movements. “The aim is to understand how things such as understanding words and attention visually control eye movements,” he said.

Most people who study reading argue that the eye takes a sample of information on the page and the reading mind basically takes what is given without giving a clue back to the eye.

Reichle guessed that it was wrong, and argued that observing mindless readings would be interesting to enlighten what happened when the mind was busy. He conducted the research with Andrew E. Reineberg from the University of Pittsburgh and Jonathan W. Schooler from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Four undergraduate students at the University of Pittsburgh volunteered for the project. Each person comes to the lab for a reading session of 12 or more one-hour readings on Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility, the reading was chosen because it was “quite easy but rather boring,” Reichle said. “We started with The Trial by Kafka, but people thought it was too attention.” When students read books on the screen, computers track their eye movements. They are asked to press a button marked with the letter “Z” when they know that they are no longer focused on reading. “The computer also asks every few minutes whether they notice or lose focus.

Eyes do things differently Human Anatomy and Physiology 11e when someone watches than their mind drifts. In normal reading, the eye pays attention to one word, then quickly moves to another word. The eyes spend more time on less common words. However, when one’s mind drifts, the eyes do not follow these patterns. The eye also pays more attention to each word.

“It’s almost like an eye that is mechanically slow,” Reichle said. This shows that public opinion in the field is a mistake, in fact, when people read, their eye movements are very much connected with language processing that runs in the brain.

4 Tips for Simplifying Your Website Design

Have you ever visited a website and confused where to go because the navigation buttons are less visible? This could be due to a website design error. Creating a website design cannot be arbitrary. One effort to get your website visited by many people is to make the design as simple as possible. The simple user interface is easier for visitors to understand so they can know where to go. To make a simple design, here are four things you can do.

1. Call to Action Must Be Clearly Visible

When creating a website , of course you have a purpose and a goal, right? Make this goal clearly visible so that it can be immediately understood when visitors arrive at your website . Make sure he can immediately know the type of website he visits, moves in what area of ​​the website , and what he can do on your website . The position of the CTA placement must be clearly visible to your website visitors so that they are not confused.

2. Use Harmonious Colors

Indeed, colors look very attractive, but you should not apply this to your website . Don’t use more than four shades of color. If you play too much color, this can show the inconsistency of your website in terms of design. If necessary, use a monotonous color palette, so there are only one or two colors to create harmony for the user interface . This makes your website more comfortable and easy to remember for visitors to your website .

3. List UI Elements That Are Needed

Including user interface elements such as social media icons is necessary. But make sure when a visitor clicks on it, it leads directly to your company profile, not just to the social media main page. If this is the case, then the installation of these elements becomes less effective. Likewise with the banner in the form of a slide . Do not leave this banner in the form of display only, but it should also include links . So when the banner changes and visitors feel interested in the info, they can directly access the page in question by just clicking on the banner .

4. No Need to Write All Text

Maybe you think by writing text thoroughly, this can make it easier for visitors to get information without having to scroll down. Precisely too much text can damage your design. List the text as needed (usually just a keyword ) and use a large font size. The goal is to be easily seen by visitors and if he wants to get more complete info, he can scroll sideways or down.

In making designs, there are many things that must be considered. Indeed you can be creative by playing colors, images, elements, and layouts. However, you should also consider that the more complex the design you make, it can reduce the effectiveness of the website itself. Good design is what can make your website easily understood by visitors.

New discoveries can affect how the body receives drugs

Researchers at Queen’s University found that molecules in glass or plastic can move when exposed to laser light.

Researchers at Queen's University found that New Discovery molecules can affect how the body receives drugs

This discovery could one day be used to facilitate the distribution of drugs by allowing doctors to control the time and speed at which drugs are distributed in the body. Drugs inside the plastic wrap can be released into the body when exposed to light.

Lead researcher Jean-Michael Nunzi who is a professor in the section on Chemistry and Physics found that “molecular cooperation” is what allows molecules to move and change.

“Glass and plastic are mysterious materials. We know how molecules move in liquids, but we don’t know how molecules move in glass or plastic,” Dr. Nunzi. “We found ways to move on the molecular scale in glass or plastic.”

Dr. Nunzi compared the discovery with the cars parked in a crowded parking lot. If the parking lot is full of cars without space between them, then one car cannot move unless the other car moves with the car. The same thing can apply to molecules, light causes molecules to move slightly, but cooperates with other molecules that allow them to move significantly.

When plastic is exposed to light from a set of lasers, molecules under light move together that change the shape of hard material. The molecules that are not exposed to light will remain stable. The result is a dramatic change in the form of hard material that can be seen with the naked eye.

The findings, published in the Journal of Chemical Physics, are based on a study conducted at Queen’s University in 1995 that showed that making hard material into liquid or moving using light was possible.

Thinkers Have Different Brains

Thinking is good, but not too much, say the scientists.

more cells in the part of the brain known as Thinkers Have Different Brains

People who think more have more cells in the part of the brain known as the frontal lobes .

British scientists in their publication in Science see how brain size differs depending on how many people think about decisions.

But a national survey in the UK recently found that certain people think too much about life as reported by the BBC .

The memories or memories of these people are not good and they may also be depressed.

Stephen Fleming who is a member of the University College London (UCL) team who conducted the study said: “Imagine you were on the quiz show ‘Who wants to Be a Millionaire’ and you were not sure about your answer. You could use the opportunity to ask the audience to help.”

The London team asked 32 volunteers to make difficult decisions. They have to see two very similar black and gray images and choose which one is brighter.

Then they have to say how confident they are in their answers on a scale of one to six. Although it is difficult to see the difference, the images are arranged so that the level of difficulty is the same for all volunteers.

People who are more confident with their answers have more brain cells in the front of the brain known as the anterior prefrontal cortex .

This part of the brain is associated with many disorders or mental illness and brain, including autism. Previous studies looked at how this part functions when people make decisions in real conditions, but not on differences between individuals.

The research is the first to show that there are physical differences among people taking into account how large this part is. These size differences are related to how much they think about their own decisions.

Researchers hope that knowing more about this type of difference can help people who are mentally ill.

Fellow researcher Dr. Rimona Weil from the UCL Neuroscience Cognition Institute said: “I think that has important implications for mental patients who may not have enough insight into their own illness.”

He added that they hope to improve the ability of patients to recognize that they have an illness and not forget to get treatment.

However, thinking too much about your own thoughts may not be all good.

Psychologist Dr. Tracy Alloway from Stirling University who was not involved in the latest study said that some people have a tendency to think too much and this leads to the risk of depression.

More than 1,000 people took part in a national study linking one type of memory called “active memory” to mental health.

Active memory involves the ability to remember pieces of information for a short period of time, but also when you remember the pieces of information you do something about that information.

For example, you might have to remember information about where you see shapes and colors and also answer questions like what shapes and colors look.

Those who have less active memory are 10-15% of people who can only remember two things, tend to consider things and think too much.

These findings were presented at the British Science Festival held this year at Aston University in Birmingham.

Want to lose weight? Turn off the lights

The secret to maintaining a healthy weight can be as easy as turning off lights at night, according to new research.

Exposure to light at night changes your metabolism and makes your body fat even without changes in the amount of food you consume, according to what the researchers found.

They found that staying up late often leads to changes in eating habits, which are more eaten at night when the metabolism is slowing down.

Evidence shows that 24-hour workers are more prone to heart disease and diabetes.

The researchers found that rats exposed to small or dim light for eight weeks became one third heavier than the mice that were in the standard cycle day and night.

Laura Fonken who is a neuroscience scientist at the University of Ohio said: “Although there is no difference in the level of activity or daily food consumption (diet), rats that live with light at night become more fat compared to others.”

The findings, published online on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that there is a “wrong” time to eat.

Obtaining clear weight is not only limited to the calories that go in and the calories that come out but also depends on the biological clock of our own body or what is called the circadian rhythm .

Dr. Fonken and his colleagues said: “Nighttime light is an environmental factor that could be the cause of an epidemic or an obesity epidemic that is unexpected by people.

“Collective obesity is correlated with a number of factors including the level of light exposure at night.”

For example, researchers identified longer computer and television use as risk factors for obesity, but researchers have focused on how this relates to a lack of physical activity.

Prof. Nelson said: “It is possible that people who use computers and watch television all night eat at the wrong time that disrupts their metabolism.”

“Obviously, maintaining weight requires low calorie intake and high physical activity, but these environmental factors can explain why some people who maintain good energy balance still gain weight.”

In one experiment, rats were left exposed to light at night, but their diet was regulated at normal meal times. The mice did not gain weight as they would in a normal cycle day and night.

Prof. Nelson said: “Something about light at night makes the mice in our study want to eat at the wrong time to metabolize their food properly.”

He said if the results were confirmed in humans this would indicate that eating late at night could be a special risk factor for obesity.

“When we limit their eating patterns to their normal meal times, we don’t see weight gain. This adds evidence that eating time is very critical of weight gain,” Dr. Phonken.

Tam Fry of the National Obesity Forum described a new study that informs eating late at night can make you fat as “something very interesting”.

He said: “Meals are very significant.”

“We have long advised people that a quicker dinner can help keep their weight balanced compared to late night eating which keeps food in the body without physical activity throughout the night.

Genetic Base Hair Loss

The discovery of the second most common cause of hair loss after male pattern baldness.

The discovery of the second most common cause of hair loss after baldness p Genetic Base Hair Loss

In 1996, Mrs. Christiano’s hair suddenly began to fall which caused her scalp to look like patches of baldness. The condition was diagnosed as alopecia areata, which affects about 2 percent of the total population, including more than 5.3 million people in the United States.

Because she struggled with the disease, Ms. Christiano, who was part of the Dermatology and Development and Genetics section at Columbia University Medical Center, decided to study hair loss.

“I looked at the literature and realized how little is known about genes that control hair growth,” he said. “I don’t believe that my illness is very unknown.”

Earlier this year, an international research team led by Christiano found that the immune genes carried by alopecia areata patients were almost identical to those carried by patients suffering from rheumatoid artrisis, type 1 diabetes and celiac disease . The study was published in the July 1 issue of Nature .

Christiano, who is the professor of Richard and Mildred Rhodebeck, now hopes that the drugs used to treat the disease, especially rheumatoid arthritis, may also be used to treat alopecia areata . The team hopes to start clinical trials next year.

Unlike male pattern baldness, alopecia areata has sudden attacks and is often characterized by hair loss throughout the body including eyebrows, eyelashes and feet. (The word “alopecia” comes from the Greek word “fox” which is an animal whose hair always falls out). This disease is classified as an autoimmune disorder which means it is caused when the immune or immune system attacks its own organs , in this case the hair follicles.

The researchers found that a gene called ULBP3 functions as a home lantern for killer immune cells. ULBP3 is not active in normal but active hair follicles in the alopecia areata follicle . In active state, ULBP3 attracts killer immune cells with a receptor called NKG2D which triggers autoimmune attacks.

Christiano and his colleague Raphael Clynes who is an assistant professor of medicine and microbiology at the medical center are now trying to find ways to moderate the response.

“The easy thing to do is block NKG2D receptors with certain antibody drugs that are being developed,” Clynes said. “Another tactic is to use soluble receptors that block interactions between killer cells and signals from ULBP3 which signal to be killed.”

In addition to the problem of hair loss, Christiano studies hypertrichosis or excessive hair growth. He took his Ph.D in genetics at Rutgers University and was a post-doctoral student in dermatology at Jefferson Medical Center in Philadelphia where he conducted research on bullous epidermolysis which was a potentially fatal blister or blistering disorder .

Hair loss is among skin diseases that are very emotionally damaging as they affect the quality of life, Christiano said. He said for now there is hope for alopecia patients because the disease has a genetic cause which means that healing might be on its way.

Now Christiano has intact, wavy black hair on his head. After two years of treatment with steroids, the condition reversed by itself. But he is still emotionally connected to the disease.

He recently spoke at the Alopecia National Foundation patient conference in Indianapolis. After giving lectures to several hundred alopecia patients , many people shed tears, as did him.

“They can finally talk about genes,” he said. “They feel strengthened.”

New Vontsira Small Carnivore Species Found

The new species of vontsira is the first new carnivore found in two decades.

The new vontsira species is the first new carnivore discovered in two decades. Vontsira Small Carnivorous New Species Found

Scientists have discovered the first new carnivorous species discovered in more than 20 years, namely civet-like creatures or mongoose with a sharp nose snout and sharp teeth that live in the Lac Alaotra swamp, Madagascar’s largest lake.

The new animal was found swimming in the lake by researchers from the Natural History Museum in London, Nature Heritage , the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and Conservation International when biologists surveyed bamboo lemurs, which are other mammals specifically found in Madagascar. A closer examination shows that animalsit is vontsira which is a mammal belonging to the family Eupleridae which can only be found on the island. Euplerid animals tend to have slender bodies like cats or some kind of civet and most eat meat (carnivores) even though some species eat fruit. Genetic analysis showed that the new vontsira carnivorous species was very closely connected with brown-tailed vontsira or Salanoia concolor that lived in the rainforest near the area.

Comparison with specimens from the museum shows that the teeth and special vontsira habitats that live in the swamp justify their recognition, as reported by the team in the September issue of Systematics and Biodiversity . The researchers called him vontsira Durrell which was taken from the name of the preserver and writer Gerald Durrell.

Madagascar is believed to have been separated from the mainland of Africa more than 100 million years ago which provided a place for evolution. The island is home to all types of plants, primates and birds that are not found in other parts of the world. The team noticed that vontsira’s dwelling habitat had recently lost one of its members, Grebe Laotra or Tachybaptus rufolavatus, which was declared extinct by IUCN earlier this year.

Robots Use Their Hands to Think

Action-centered coginition is a breakthrough concept in the world of robotics where robots learn to “think” in terms of what actions they can take on an object.

centralized is a groundbreaking concept in the world of robotics where learning robots for robots use their hands to think

The act of speaking is louder than words, especially if you are a robot . At least that is the theory offered by Europe’s great efforts to develop a completely new approach to robotics cognition.

The PACO-PLUS project seeks to test a breakthrough theory called “object-action complexes” (KTO). KTO is units “thinking about how to do”. Basically this approach designs software and hardware that allows these robots to think about objects in terms of actions that can be performed on the object.

For example, a robot can see everything. If an object has a handle, the robot can also hold it. If the object has a hole, the robot might be able to match something to the hole or fill it with liquid. If the object has a lid or door, the robot may open it.

So, objects have meaning or are interpreted by the range of possible actions that robots can perform on those objects. This opens up a more interesting way for robots to think independently because it helps foster the possibility of developing behaviors, namely complex behaviors that arise spontaneously because of simple rules.

Our universe demonstrates the astonishing complexity of a handful of universal constants and DNA which consists of only four bases, but all of them appear in life. Researchers at PACO-PLUS hope to imitate a certain level of complexity, namely the complexity that arises from simplicity.

In some ways, their approach imitates the learning process of babies. When finding a new object, the baby will immediately hold it, eat it, or bang it with another object. Because they learn from trial and error, for example a round pole will enter a round hole so that the range of actions will expand.

Paying attention to other people also increases children’s understanding and then the child starts using actions with combinations to complete more complex goals such as holding the doorknob and turning it around.

PACO-PLUS takes advantage of these proven strategies to enable robots to teach themselves by learning from their observations and experiences. As a key part of this strategy, PACO-PLUS organizes most of its work with Humanoid robots, which are human-shaped robots.

“Humanoid robots are artificial forms with complex and perceptual full motor abilities that make them experimental fields that are very suitable for studying cognitive cognition and information processing,” said Tamim Asfour who is the leader of the Humanoid Research Group at the Anthropometric Institute at the Institute of Technology Karlsruhe Germany and is a co-coordinator of the PACO-PLUS project .

“Our work follows Rodney Brooks who was the first person to explicitly say that cognition is a function of our perception and our ability to interact with our environment. In other words, cognition arises from our existence and existence in the environment.”

Brooks, who published his most influential work in the 1980s, believes that moving and interacting with the environment are difficult problems in biological evolution, but when a species achieves it, it is very easy to “evolve” high-level symbolic reasoning of abstract thoughts. Brooks believes that intangible intelligence is a problem that cannot be solved.

This reverses the approach taken by ” artificial intelligence “. IB believes that if you develop enough intelligence, the mind of the machine will be able to sense and solve problems, while robotics cognition believes that if you develop useful perceptions and interactions, intelligence will emerge spontaneously.

His assessment still requires more information to determine which is correct, but the robotics cognition faculty is supported by biology and now also handles the PACO-PLUS project .

In the advanced stages, there are no prospective robots like in the film “I Robot”. Although Hollywood’s interpretation is still far away, the applications and examples developed by PACO-PLUS show that perhaps we are now on the right track.